Real-World
Economics

 

George H. Blackford, Ph.D.

 Economist at Large

 Email: george(at)rwEconomics.com

 

It ain't what you don't know that gets you into trouble.

It’s what you know for sure that just ain't so.
Attributed to Mark Twain (among others)

 

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http://www.rweconomics.com/_themes/sandston/astonrul.gif

OMB Budget Tables 3.1, 3.2, and 11.3

http://www.rweconomics.com/_themes/sandston/astonrul.gif

 

 

Table 3.1—Outlays by Superfunction and Function

2015

Program

Billions of Dollars

Percent of Budget

Percent  of GDP

National Defense

589.6

15.98%

3.31%

Human resources

2,706.8

73.39%

15.20%

Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services

122.1

3.31%

0.69%

Health

482.2

13.07%

2.71%

Medicare

546.2

14.81%

3.07%

Income Security

508.8

13.80%

2.86%

Social Security

887.8

24.07%

4.99%

Veterans Benefits and Services

159.7

4.33%

0.90%

Physical resources

115.2

3.12%

0.65%

Energy

6.8

0.19%

0.04%

Natural Resources and Environment

36.0

0.98%

0.20%

Commerce and Housing Credit

-37.9

-1.03%

-0.21%

(On-budget)

-36.2

-0.98%

-0.20%

(Off-budget)

-1.7

-0.05%

-0.01%

Transportation

89.5

2.43%

0.50%

Community and Regional Development

20.7

0.56%

0.12%

Net interest

223.2

6.05%

1.25%

Other functions

169.4

4.59%

0.95%

International Affairs

48.6

1.32%

0.27%

General Science, Space, and Technology

29.4

0.80%

0.17%

Agriculture

18.5

0.50%

0.10%

Administration of Justice

51.9

1.41%

0.29%

General Government

21.0

0.57%

0.12%

Allowances

0.0

0.00%

0.00%

Undistributed offsetting receipts

-115.8

-3.14%

-0.65%

Total, Federal outlays

3,688.3

100.00%

20.72%

Gross National Product

17,803.4

482.70%

100.00%

 

 

 

Table 3.2—Outlays by Function and Subfunction

2015

Program

Millions of Dollars

Percent of Budget

Percent  of GDP

050 National Defense:

-

0.00%

0.00%

051 Department of Defense-Military:

-

0.00%

0.00%

Military Personnel

145,206

3.94%

0.82%

Operation and Maintenance

247,239

6.70%

1.39%

Procurement

101,342

2.75%

0.57%

Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation

64,124

1.74%

0.36%

Military Construction

8,114

0.22%

0.05%

Family Housing

1,198

0.03%

0.01%

Other

(4,724)

-0.13%

-0.03%

051 Subtotal, Department of Defense-Military

562,499

15.25%

3.16%

053 Atomic energy defense activities

18,692

0.51%

0.10%

054 Defense-related activities

8,373

0.23%

0.05%

Total, National Defense

589,564

15.98%

3.31%

150 International Affairs:

-

0.00%

0.00%

151 International development and humanitarian assistance

24,087

0.65%

0.14%

152 International security assistance

12,907

0.35%

0.07%

153 Conduct of foreign affairs

13,246

0.36%

0.07%

154 Foreign information and exchange activities

1,531

0.04%

0.01%

155 International financial programs

(3,195)

-0.09%

-0.02%

Total, International Affairs

48,576

1.32%

0.27%

250 General Science, Space, and Technology:

-

0.00%

0.00%

251 General science and basic research

11,719

0.32%

0.07%

252 Space flight, research, and supporting activities

17,693

0.48%

0.10%

Total, General Science, Space, and Technology

29,412

0.80%

0.17%

270 Energy:

-

0.00%

0.00%

271 Energy supply

4,707

0.13%

0.03%

272 Energy conservation

1,187

0.03%

0.01%

274 Emergency energy preparedness

449

0.01%

0.00%

276 Energy information, policy, and regulation

495

0.01%

0.00%

Total, Energy

6,838

0.19%

0.04%

300 Natural Resources and Environment:

-

0.00%

0.00%

301 Water resources

7,760

0.21%

0.04%

302 Conservation and land management

10,519

0.29%

0.06%

303 Recreational resources

3,501

0.09%

0.02%

304 Pollution control and abatement

7,241

0.20%

0.04%

306 Other natural resources

7,013

0.19%

0.04%

Total, Natural Resources and Environment

36,034

0.98%

0.20%

350 Agriculture:

-

0.00%

0.00%

351 Farm income stabilization

13,424

0.36%

0.08%

352 Agricultural research and services

5,076

0.14%

0.03%

Total, Agriculture

18,500

0.50%

0.10%

370 Commerce and Housing Credit:

-

0.00%

0.00%

371 Mortgage credit

(35,658)

-0.97%

-0.20%

372 Postal service

(1,610)

-0.04%

-0.01%

373 Deposit insurance

(12,812)

-0.35%

-0.07%

376 Other advancement of commerce

12,175

0.33%

0.07%

Total, Commerce and Housing Credit

(37,905)

-1.03%

-0.21%

400 Transportation:

-

0.00%

0.00%

401 Ground transportation

59,126

1.60%

0.33%

402 Air transportation

20,033

0.54%

0.11%

403 Water transportation

9,994

0.27%

0.06%

407 Other transportation

380

0.01%

0.00%

Total, Transportation

89,533

2.43%

0.50%

450 Community and Regional Development:

-

0.00%

0.00%

451 Community development

7,817

0.21%

0.04%

452 Area and regional development

3,861

0.10%

0.02%

453 Disaster relief and insurance

8,992

0.24%

0.05%

Total, Community and Regional Development

20,670

0.56%

0.12%

500 Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services:

-

0.00%

0.00%

501 Elementary, secondary, and vocational education

40,022

1.09%

0.22%

502 Higher education

51,341

1.39%

0.29%

503 Research and general education aids

3,493

0.09%

0.02%

504 Training and employment

7,103

0.19%

0.04%

505 Other labor services

1,799

0.05%

0.01%

506 Social services

18,303

0.50%

0.10%

Total, Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services

122,061

3.31%

0.69%

550 Health:

-

0.00%

0.00%

551 Health care services

446,360

12.10%

2.51%

552 Health research and training

31,400

0.85%

0.18%

554 Consumer and occupational health and safety

4,463

0.12%

0.03%

Total, Health

482,223

13.07%

2.71%

570 Medicare:

-

0.00%

0.00%

571 Medicare

546,202

14.81%

3.07%

600 Income Security:

-

0.00%

0.00%

601 General retirement and disability insurance (excluding social security)

7,805

0.21%

0.04%

602 Federal employee retirement and disability

139,166

3.77%

0.78%

603 Unemployment compensation

34,978

0.95%

0.20%

604 Housing assistance

47,823

1.30%

0.27%

605 Food and nutrition assistance

104,797

2.84%

0.59%

609 Other income security

174,274

4.73%

0.98%

Total, Income Security

508,843

13.80%

2.86%

650 Social Security:

-

0.00%

0.00%

651 Social security

887,753

24.07%

4.99%

700 Veterans Benefits and Services:

-

0.00%

0.00%

701 Income security for veterans

76,360

2.07%

0.43%

702 Veterans education, training, and rehabilitation

13,383

0.36%

0.08%

703 Hospital and medical care for veterans

61,908

1.68%

0.35%

704 Veterans housing

743

0.02%

0.00%

705 Other veterans benefits and services

7,344

0.20%

0.04%

Total, Veterans Benefits and Services

159,738

4.33%

0.90%

750 Administration of Justice:

-

0.00%

0.00%

751 Federal law enforcement activities

26,934

0.73%

0.15%

752 Federal litigative and judicial activities

14,717

0.40%

0.08%

753 Federal correctional activities

7,049

0.19%

0.04%

754 Criminal justice assistance

3,203

0.09%

0.02%

Total, Administration of Justice

51,903

1.41%

0.29%

800 General Government:

-

0.00%

0.00%

801 Legislative functions

3,760

0.10%

0.02%

802 Executive direction and management

510

0.01%

0.00%

803 Central fiscal operations

11,096

0.30%

0.06%

804 General property and records management

(490)

-0.01%

0.00%

805 Central personnel management

81

0.00%

0.00%

806 General purpose fiscal assistance

7,266

0.20%

0.04%

808 Other general government

3,528

0.10%

0.02%

809 Deductions for offsetting receipts

(4,782)

-0.13%

-0.03%

Total, General Government

20,969

0.57%

0.12%

900 Net Interest:

-

0.00%

0.00%

901 Interest on Treasury debt securities (gross)

402,429

10.91%

2.26%

902 Interest received by on-budget trust funds

(45,823)

-1.24%

-0.26%

903 Interest received by off-budget trust funds

(95,968)

-2.60%

-0.54%

908 Other interest

(37,781)

-1.02%

-0.21%

909 Other investment income

324

0.01%

0.00%

Total, Net Interest

223,181

6.05%

1.25%

920 Allowances:

-

0.00%

0.00%

923 Immigration Reform

-

0.00%

0.00%

924 Adjustment for Budget Control Act Caps (Non-Security)

-

0.00%

0.00%

925 Future Disaster Costs

-

0.00%

0.00%

929 Placeholder for Outyear OCO Costs

-

0.00%

0.00%

Total, Allowances

-

0.00%

0.00%

950 Undistributed Offsetting Receipts:

-

0.00%

0.00%

951 Employer share, employee retirement (on-budget)

(65,112)

-1.77%

-0.37%

952 Employer share, employee retirement (off-budget)

(16,008)

-0.43%

-0.09%

953 Rents and royalties on the Outer Continental Shelf

(4,555)

-0.12%

-0.03%

954 Sale of major assets

-

0.00%

0.00%

959 Other undistributed offsetting receipts

(30,128)

-0.82%

-0.17%

Total, Undistributed Offsetting Receipts

(115,803)

-3.14%

-0.65%

Total outlays

3,688,292

100.00%

20.72%

 

 

 

OMB's Table 11.3 Payments for Individuals

2015

Programs

Billions of Dollars

Percent of Budget

Percent  of GDP

Social security and railroad retirement:

 

 

 

Social security: old age and survivors insurance

738.0

20.0%

4.15%

Social security: disability insurance

143.4

3.9%

0.81%

Railroad retirement (excl. social security)

8.9

0.2%

0.05%

Total, Social security and railroad retirement

890.2

24.1%

5.00%

Federal employees retirement and insurance:

0.0

0.0%

0.00%

Military retirement

56.8

1.5%

0.32%

Civil service retirement

81.8

2.2%

0.46%

Veterans service-connected compensation

69.7

1.9%

0.39%

Other

3.7

0.1%

0.02%

Total, Federal employees retirement and insurance

212.0

5.7%

1.19%

Unemployment Assistance

32.7

0.9%

0.18%

Medical care:

 

 

 

Medicare: hospital insurance

273.5

7.4%

1.54%

Medicare: supplementary medical insurance

348.6

9.5%

1.96%

Children's health insurance

9.2

0.3%

0.05%

Medicaid

349.8

9.5%

1.96%

Indian health

4.6

0.1%

0.03%

Hospital and medical care for veterans

63.7

1.7%

0.36%

Health resources and services

7.7

0.2%

0.04%

Substance abuse and mental health services

3.1

0.1%

0.02%

Uniformed Services retiree health care fund

10.0

0.3%

0.06%

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation

1.0

0.0%

0.01%

Refundable Premium Tax Credit and Cost Sharing Reductions

27.2

0.7%

0.15%

Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits Fund

0.0

0.0%

0.00%

Other

12.7

0.3%

0.07%

Total, Medical care

1,111.0

30.1%

6.24%

Assistance to students:

 

 

 

Veterans education benefits

13.6

0.4%

0.08%

Student assistance--Department of Education and other

61.1

1.7%

0.34%

Total, Assistance to students

74.7

2.0%

0.42%

Housing assistance

46.7

1.3%

0.26%

Food and nutrition assistance:

 

 

 

SNAP (formerly Food stamps)(including Puerto Rico)

76.1

2.1%

0.43%

Child nutrition and special milk programs

21.0

0.6%

0.12%

Supplemental feeding programs (WIC and CSFP)

6.3

0.2%

0.04%

Commodity donations and other

1.1

0.0%

0.01%

Total, Food and nutrition assistance

104.6

2.8%

0.59%

Public assistance and related programs:

 

 

 

Supplemental security income program

52.3

1.4%

0.29%

Family support payments to States and TANF

20.0

0.5%

0.11%

Low income home energy assistance

3.4

0.1%

0.02%

Earned income tax credit

60.1

1.6%

0.34%

Payments to States for daycare assistance

5.1

0.1%

0.03%

Veterans non-service connected pensions

5.3

0.1%

0.03%

Payments to States--Foster Care/Adoption Assist.

7.3

0.2%

0.04%

Payment where child credit exceeds tax liability

20.6

0.6%

0.12%

Family Energy Assistance Fund

0.0

0.0%

0.00%

Other public assistance

1.2

0.0%

0.01%

Total, Public assistance and related programs

175.3

4.8%

0.98%

All other payments for individuals:

 

 

 

Coal miners and black lung benefits

0.4

0.0%

0.00%

Veterans insurance and burial benefits

1.2

0.0%

0.01%

Aging services programs

1.7

0.0%

0.01%

Energy employees compensation fund

1.0

0.0%

0.01%

September 11th victim compensation

0.1

0.0%

0.00%

Refugee assistance and other

3.2

0.1%

0.02%

Total, All other payments for individuals

7.7

0.2%

0.04%

Total, payments for individuals

2,654.9

72.0%

14.91%

Total Outlays

       3,688.3

100.0%

20.72%

Gross National Product

17,803.4

482.7%

100.00%

 

 

 

 

 

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